(Vegan, Non-GMO, Non-Allergen)
• Supports and Strengthens the Immune System*
• Promotes Optimal Brain Function such as: Improved Memory, Focus, and Concentration*
• Extremely Potent Anti-Aging, Anti-Allergenic, Anti-Bacterial (Natural Antibiotic), Anti-Fungal, Anti-Oxidant, and Anti-Viral Properties*
• Contains Intense Detoxification Factors- Including Heavy Metal Detoxification*
• One of the Strongest Anti-Cancer Agents Produced by the Body*
• Liposomal Glutathione Promotes Aggressive Liver Regeneration*
• Extremely Effective in Fighting Free Radical Cell Oxidation*
“Glutathione is the unsung antioxidant ... the one that makes all the others work.” Robert C. Atkins, MD, Founder of The Atkins Center
“The easiest surest way to live an extra decade or two: Increase your body's supply of glutathione.” Dr. David Williams
Pair's vs. Competitors’ Liposomes
Pair has mastered liposomal technology using natural Phosphatidylcholine liposomes as a delivery method for Glutathione. We believe that each and every component of our products must be as health building as possible. Current literature has shown that hydrogenated liposomes strongly increased LDL (bad) cholesterol levels while natural non-hydrogenated phosphatidylcholine was shown not to alter cholesterol levels in primates. Our choice was easy.We are currently the only company to use all natural non-hydrogenated phosphatidylcholine for our delivery system with a claim put right on the label!
• All natural ingredients
• Uniform liposomes at 150 nm particle size
• 500 mg glutathione per dose
• 400 mg all natural phosphatidylcholine per dose (not hydroxylated, hydrogenated, nor “essential” phospholipids)
• 30 doses per bottle
• Scientifically studied structure
• Scientifically studied liposomal delivery method
Liposomal Delivery Study
Blood serum levels of vitamin C as a function of time after the subjects ingested a single 5 g dose of vitamin C. The plot below represents blood serum levels of vitamin C as a function of time after the subjects ingested a single 5 g dose of vitamin C. The dotted line reflects ingestion of powdered sodium ascorbate vs. the solid line, reflecting ingestion of Empirical Labs Liposomal Vitamin C. Note that the concentration maximum, area under the curve, and residence time in the blood are significantly greater in the liposomal form of sodium ascorbate. (No claims implied.)
Our product has only what you need:
• Glutathione (nutrition)
• Natural phosphatidylcholine (delivery method and nutrition)
• Purified water
• Natural flavors and preservative
Our Liposome’s structure:
We take great care to process our liposomes properly in order to generate properly structured spherical liposomes in our product. If the structure is not there, they are not liposomes.
Pair's vs. Competitors' Liposomes
LEFT: Scanning electon micrograph of Pair's highly structured spherical liposomes.
RIGHT: Scanning electon micrograph of a competitor’s irregular "liposomes."
LEFT: 3D representation of the liposome's particle size: tightly grouped data shows high process control.
RIGHT: 3D representation of a competitor’s "liposome" particle size: all of the data being sporadic and diffuse shows little process control.
Pair Labs has 95% of its spherical liposomes between 50 nm and 420 nm (range of 370 nm) while company a competitor has a 95 % distribution of 50 nm to 690 nm (range of 640 nm). Furthermore, Pair also has higher concentrations of liposomes per dose. This illustrates the tight manufacturing control and stability of the Pair Liposomes. All Pair Liposomal products adhere to this strict size distribution to ensure glutathione and vitamin C encapsulation for optimal performance. These size distribution charts are yet another example of how not all liposomal products are the same.
Glutathione is the Most Powerful Naturally Occurring Antioxidant in All Human Cells.
The highest concentration of Glutathione is found in the liver, making it critically important in the detoxification and elimination of free radicals. Accumulation of these dangerous compounds can result in oxidative stress, which occurs when the generation of free radicals in the body exceeds the body’s ability to neutralize and eliminate them. Free radicals are highly reactive compounds created in the body during normal metabolic functions; they can also enter the body through the environment.
Metabolically, Glutathione has many functions. For example, glutathione plays a substantial role in the functioning of the body’s immune system. Its antioxidant property makes it vital to white blood cells (lymphocytes)—as it allows them to reach their full potential during the oxygen-requiring activity of the body’s immune response.
Glutathione Liposomal Resources
• After the administration of traditional oral glutathione the concentrations of glutathione in plasma did not increase significantly, suggesting that the systemic BioAvailability of glutathione is negligible in humans. Because of hydrolysis of glutathione by intestinal and hepatic function, oral dietary glutathione is not a major determinant of circulating glutathione, and it is not possible to increase circulating glutathione to a clinically beneficial extent by the traditional oral administration of a single dose of glutathione. (1)
• The plasma concentration of Glutathione is low because of its rapid turnover, and more than 80% of plasma Glutathione is removed by the kidney. (2)
• Liposome-associated antioxidants can protect the lung against an oxidant challenge, and the extent of protection appears to be related to the characteristics of each antioxidant formulation. (3)
• Liposomal Glutathione protects the cells against several agents that are potentially harmful, such as hydroperoxides, xenobiotics, or ionizing radiations. In many cases cellular GSH levels are lowered and to restore these levels may be very important for cell survival. (4)
• Free GSH does not enter the cells. The levels of GSH in cells may be increased, however, by the administration of liposomally entrapped GSH. This procedure is effective but liposomally entrapped GSH is not readily available and requires intravenous administration. (5)
• Oral administration of GSH increases the Intra-Cellular levels of GSH, may explain in part some results by other authors who have observed that dietary GSH supplementation reverses the age associated decline in immune response in mice (Furukawa et al. 1987). Furthermore, since oral GSH may be used to protect the liver. (6)
• A Liposomal preparation of glutathione (GSH) was investigated for its ability to replenish intracellular GSH and provide neuroprotection in an in vitro model of Parkinson’s disease. These findings indicate that glutathione supplied in a liposomal formulation holds promise as a potential therapeutic for neuronal maintenance. (7)
• We thus conclude that liposomal glutathione possesses anti-oxidative and anti-atherogenic properties towards lipoproteins and macrophages, leading to attenuation of atherosclerosis development. (8)
(1) The Systemic BioAvailabiliy of Traditional Oral Glutathione, University of Bern, Switzerland.
(2) GLUTATHIONE IN HEALTH AND DISEASE: PHARMACOTHERAPEUTIC ISSUES.
(3) Alleviation of paraquat-induced lung injury by pretreatment with bifunctional liposomes containing α-tocopherol and glutathione.
(4-6) Effect of oral glutathione on hepatic glutathione levels in rats and mice. Dr. Jose Vira, Dr. Carmen Perez.
(7) Liposomal-Glutathione Provides Maintenance of Intracellular Glutathione and Neuroprotection in Mesencephalic Neuronal Cell.
(8) Anti-oxidant and anti-atherogenic properties of liposomal glutathione. Dr. Mira Rosenblatt
Glutathione Published Medical Quotes
• Extensive research confirms that supplementation of Glutathione is a crucial requirement for superior health, effective treatment and prevention of disease. (1)
• Glutathione (GSH) is one of the most critical molecules of the entire body. GSH plays an important role in antioxidant defense, nutrient metabolism and is key in a vast number of cellular processes including gene expression, DNA and protein synthesis, cell proliferation and apoptosis, signal transduction, cytokine production, immune response, and protein glutathionylation. GSH is ubiquitous in the regulation of pathways essential for whole body homeostasis. (2)
• Glutathione is an important intra-cellular antioxidant that plays a critical role in cellular adaptation to stress. (3)
• Glutathione is a very interesting, very small molecule that’s found in every cell. It’s the body’s most important antioxidant because it’s within the cell. (4)
• Because glutathione exists within the cells, it is in a prime position to neutralize free radicals. It also has potentially widespread health benefits because it can be found in all types of cells, including the cells of the immune system, whose job is to fight disease. (5)
• If you look in a hospital situation at people who have cancer, AIDS, or other very serious disease, almost invariably they are depleted in Glutathione. The reasons for this are not completely understood, but we do know that glutathione is extremely important for maintaining intracellular health. (6)
• Animal and laboratory studies have demonstrated that glutathione has the potential to fight almost any disease, particularly those associated with aging, since free radical damage is the cause of many of the diseases of old age. There are many very strong arguments in favor of a therapeutic use of glutathione. (7)
• It’s the most important molecule you need to stay healthy and prevent disease -- yet you’ve probably never heard of it. It’s the secret to prevent aging, cancer, heart disease, dementia and more, and necessary to treat everything from autism to Alzheimer’s disease. There are more than 89,000 medical articles about it -- but your doctor doesn’t know how to address the epidemic deficiency of this critical life-giving molecule What is it? I’m talking about the mother of all antioxidants, the master detoxifier and maestro of the immune system: GLUTATHIONE. (8)
• In treating chronically ill patients with alternative medicine for more than 10 years, I have discovered that glutathione deficiency is found in nearly all very ill patients. These include people with chronic fatigue syndrome, heart disease, cancer, chronic infections, autoimmune disease, diabetes, autism, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, arthritis, asthma, kidney problems, liver disease and more. (9)
• Over the years I have come to realize that our ability to produce and maintain a high level of glutathione is critical to recovery from nearly all chronic illness -- and to preventing disease and maintaining optimal health and performance. (10)
• Problems occur when we are overwhelmed with too much oxidative stress or too many toxins. Then the glutathione becomes depleted and we can no longer protect ourselves against free radicals, infections, or cancer and we can’t get rid of toxins. This leads to further sickness and soon we are in the downward spiral of chronic illness. Glutathione is also critical in helping your immune system do its job of fighting infections, AIDS, and preventing cancer. (11)
• Glutathione is also the most critical and integral part of your detoxification system. All the toxins stick onto glutathione, which then carries them into the bile and the stool -- and out of your body. (12)
• Glutathione is a very simple molecule that is a combination of three simple building blocks of protein or amino acids -- cysteine, glycine and glutamine. The secret of its power is the sulfur chemical groups it contains. Sulfur is a sticky molecule. It acts like fly paper and all the bad things in the body stick onto it, including free radicals and toxins and other heavy metals. (13)
• Glutathione also helps us reach peak mental and physical function. Research has shown that raised glutathione levels decrease muscle damage, reduce recovery time, increase strength and endurance and shift metabolism from fat production to muscle development. (14)
• Keeping yourself healthy, boosting your performance, preventing disease, and aging well depends on keeping your glutathione levels high. (15)
• I’ll say it again ... Glutathione is so important because it is responsible for keeping so many of the keys to ultra-wellness optimized. It is critical for immune function and controlling inflammation. It is the master detoxifier and the body’s main antioxidant, protecting our cells and making our energy metabolism run well. (16)
• In numerous medical studies it has been discovered when people are ill their levels of glutathione are reduced. This has been observed in severe illnesses like diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. This same phenomenon is seen when people are battling colds, flu, and other common illnesses. (17)
• By maintaining high levels of glutathione production your body is able to maintain strong cells and powerful immune system. The ability of bacteria and virus to infect your body is greatly reduced.
Interestingly these effects are found in aging related diseases, also. As one example, our brains can be severely affected by the effects of free radicals and certain fats. Glutathione has been demonstrated to reduce the effects of both of these mind damaging elements. Many people have reported increases in mental clarity after restoring glutathione levels to normal or optimal levels. Research is currently underway and positive results are being seen in battling Alzheimer’s disease. (18) • Raised glutathione levels help increase strength and endurance. Those interested in physical fitness can benefit from a definite athletic edge. (19)
• Many antioxidants work for 1 thing, 2 things, or 3 things. Glutathione works for everything. (20)
• There is very good data in the literature to say that too much oxidants or not enough antioxidants, are really responsible for accelerated aging. (21)
• As I did more research, it became clear that glutathione is virtually a ubiquitous antioxidant. (22)
• Glutathione is the unsung antioxidant…the one that makes all the others work. (23)
• When your Glutathione level is high, your overall health is high. You feel good and you look good. You fight off minor illnesses quickly, you have plenty of energy, and you feel mentally and physically alert… you’re at an optimal level of good health. (24)
• Without glutathione, other important antioxidants such as vitamins C and E cannot do their job adequately to protect your body against disease. (25)
• Glutathione promotes longevity, protects the body against heart disease, diabetes, arthritis, asthma, bronchitis, psoriasis, chronic fatigue syndrome, lupus, and boosts the immune system strength and is useful fighting autoimmune diseases and other health problems of older adults. (26)
• It is well known that aging is accompanied by a precipitous fall in glutathione levels. Lower glutathione levels are implicated in many diseases associated with aging, including cataracts, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s, atherosclerosis and others. (27)
• Low glutathione levels have been associated with neuro-degenerative diseases such as MS (Multiple Sclerosis), ALS (Lou Gehrig’s disease), Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, among others. (28)
• Glutathione plays a role in eliminating many carcinogens and also maintains an optimized immune function, providing stronger anti-tumor defenses. (29)
• The liver is the major storehouse for glutathione. Glutathione is impaired in alcoholic hepatitis as well as in viral hepatitis A, B, and C. Raised glutathione levels restore liver function. (30)
• Glutathione protects the body from the inflammation of gastritis, stomach ulcers, pancreatitis and inflammatory bowel disease including ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. (31)
• Glutathione detoxifies a variety of pollutants, carcinogens and poisons, including many found in fuel exhaust and cigarette smoke. It also retards damage from radiation exposure due to the eroding ozone layer. (32)
• Strong muscular activity, such as that experienced by athletes, generates free radicals leading to muscle fatigue and poorer performance. Glutathione neutralizes these radicals. (33)
• Lymphocytes, cells vital for your immune system, depend on glutathione for their proper function and replication. (34)
• Antioxidants are well documented and known to possess vital roles in health maintenance and disease prevention. Glutathione is your cell’s own major antioxidant. Maintaining elevated glutathione levels aids the body’s natural antioxidant function. (35)
• Your life depends on glutathione. Without it, your cells would disintegrate from unrestrained oxidation, your body would have little resistance to bacteria, viruses and cancer, and your liver would shrivel up from the eventual accumulation of toxins. (36)
• Glutathione levels also diminsh as we age and many diseases normally associated with aging have been linked to glutathione deficiency. (37)
• Clinical evidence links low glutathione levels to the most common illnesses of our time as well as newly emerging diseases. (38)
• The easiest surest way to live an extra decade or two: Increase your body’s supply of glutathione. (39)
• Glutathione is a substance, the levels of which in our cells are predictive of how long we will live. There are very few other factors which are as predictive of our life expectancy as is our level of cellular glutathione. We literally cannot survive without this antioxidant. (40)
• No other antioxidant is as important to overall health as glutathione. It is the regulator and regenerator of immune cells and the most valuable detoxifying agent in the human body. Low levels are associated with hepatic dysfunction, immune dysfunction, cardiac disease, premature aging, and death. (41)
• Antioxidants are well documented to play vital roles in health maintenance and disease prevention. Glutathione is your cells’ own major antioxidant. (42)
• Maintaining high levels of Glutathione is critical for life and that low glutathione levels are a marker for death at an early age. Glutathione diminishes as we age. (43)
• Glutathione has potent anti-viral properties - if you raise the glutathione level you can stop the replication of most any...intracellular pathogen...but glutathione deficiency produces a pro-viral effect. (44)
• A review article published in the Annals of Pharmacology stated that glutathione is important in DNA synthesis and repair, protein and prostaglandin synthesis, amino acid transport, detoxification of toxins and carcinogen.” (45)
• We literally cannot survive without this super antioxidant. (46)
• Many longevity scientists believe that the level of glutathione in our cells is predicative of how long we will live. This is logical considering the wealth of essential bodily processes that glutathione plays a critical role in. (47)
• Glutathione has been coined with the term “master anti-oxidant (48)
• Glutathione is like the cell’s security guard protecting the genetic equipment from outside attack.
It is estimated that each cell in the body withstands 10,000 hits by free radicals each day. Glutathione disarms these free radicals before they wreak havoc and cleans up the oxidative stress related damage that has occurred. (49)
• Studies have shown that glutathione strengthens T-cells, which are critical for modulating the immune system appropriately. These are the cells that coordinate the attack against pathogenic bacteria,viruses, etc. while keeping tissue damage and autoimmune responses in check. (50)
• Glutathione fights against cellular toxins and works to eliminate carcinogens from the intracellular environment while healing damaged cells. Glutathione is constantly in action protecting the body against disease, toxins, viruses, pollutants, radiation, drugs and oxidative stress. When damage does occur, it immediately goes to work repairing the free radical damage. (51)
• Many researchers credit the increase in neurological disease and cancer to depleted cellular glutathione. The brain produces more free radicals than any other tissue and is therefore in need of more glutathione than any other region. (52)
• Levels of glutathione begin to decline with aging as the majority of individuals in our society become more toxic and deficient. Additionally, our society has more environmental toxicity than ever before, so there is a significant need for more glutathione production. (53)
• Scientists estimate that the average person by age 20 loses glutathione at 8-12% per decade. Increased health challenges from infection, poor diet, increased toxic load, medication usage, etc. can deplete these stores at a much faster rate. Scientists estimate that a 30% reduction of glutathione is enough for cellular dysfunction to occur. (54)
• There is an epidemic deficiency of glutathione in patients today. In fact, glutathione deficiency is found in almost all chronically ill patients. (55)
(1-2) Garry F. Gordon MD, DO, MD (H)
(3) Linus Pauling Institute
(4-5) Gustavo Bounous, MD
(6-7) Jeremy Appleton, ND and Glutathione Expert
(8-16) Mark Hyman, MD
(17-18) Dr. Allan Somersall, Ph.D., M.D. with Dr. Gustavo Bounous, M.D. FRCS(C)
(19) Journal of Applied Physiology 87: 1381-1385, 1999
(20-22) Robert H. Keller, MD, MS, FACP, AAHIVS
(23) Robert C. Atkins, MD, Founder of The Atkins Center
(24) Alan Pressman, DC, Phd, CCN
(25) Dr. Allan Somersall, Ph.D., M.D. with Dr. Gustavo Bounous, M.D. FRCS(C)
(26) James Gutman, MD, FACEP
(27) Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 47: 1021-26 1994
(28) The Lancet 344: 796-798, 1994
(29) Cancer Letters 57: 91-94 1991
(30) American Journal of Gasteroenterology 91: 2569-2573, 1996
(31) Gut 42: 485-492, 1998
(32) Annual Reviews of Biochemistry 52: 711-760 1983
(33) Sport Medicine 21: 213-238, 1996
(34) IMMUNOLOGY 61: 503-508 1987
(35) Biochemical Pharmacology 47: 2113-2123 1994
(36-38) James Gutman, MD, FACEP
(39) Dr. David Williams
(40) Earl Mindell, R. Ph., Ph.D.
(41) The Immune System Cure, Lorna R. Vanderhaeghe and Patrick J.D. Bouic, Ph.D.
(42) Biochemical Pharmacology 47: 2113-2123 1994
(43) Review of Biochemistry 52: 711-780 1983 Lester Packer, Ph.D.
(44) Paul Cheney, MD
(45) Lorna R. Vanderhaeghe & Patrick J.D. Bouic, Ph.D
(46) Earl Mindell, R.Ph., PhD
(47-54) Dr. David Jockers
(55) Charles M. Scott, M.D.
Glutathione Clinical References
Glutathione – Autism
• Impaired transsulfuration and oxidative stress in autistic children: Improvement with targeted nutritional intervention. (1)
• Metabolic endophenotype and related genotypes are associated with oxidative stress in children with autism. (2)
• Thimerosal Neurotoxicity is Associated with Glutathione Depletion: Protection with Glutathione Precursors. (3)
• Homozygous gene deletions of the glutathione s-transferases M1 and T1 are associated with thimerosal sensitization. (4)
• Metabolic biomarkers of increased oxidative stress and impaired methylation capacity in children with autism. (5)
• Changes in nitric oxide levels and antioxidant enzyme activities may have a role in the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in autism. (6)
• Investigation of antioxidant enzymes in children with autistic disorder. (7)
• Homozygous gene deletions of the glutathione S-transferases M1 and T1 are associated with thimerosal sensitization. (8)
• Neuroglial Activation and Neuroinflammation in the Brain of Patients with Autism. (9)
• Understanding Glutathione. (10)
• Autism: It’s Not Just in the Head. (11)
• The Metaphor of an Oceanic Disease. (12)
• Autism: A Multi-System Oxidative and Inflammatory Disorder. (13)
• Abnormal transmethylation/transsulfuration metabolism and DNA hypomethylation among parents of children with autism. (14)
• Efficacy of methylcobalamin and folinic acid treatment on glutathione redox status in children with autism. (15)
• Glutathione in the treatment of autism: a preliminary investigation. (16)
• Safety and Efficacy of Oral DMSA Therapy for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Part A - Medical Results. (17)
Glutathione Articles - Cancer
• Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on oxaliplatinbased chemotherapy in advanced colorectal cancer: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (18)
• Glutathione in the prevention of cisplatin induced toxicities. A prospectively randomized pilot trial in patients with head and neck cancer and non small lung cancer. (19)
• Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: Results of a double-blind, randomized trial. (20)
• Characterization of cisplatin-glutathione adducts by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Evidence for their formation in vitro but not in vivo after concomitant administration of cisplatin and glutathione to rats anc cancer patients. (21)
• Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy on advanced gastric cancer: a randomized doubleblind placebo-controlled trial. (22)
• Phase 1 trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. (23)
• A phase II study of combination chemotherapy in advanced ovarian carcinoma with cisplatin and cyclophosphamide plus reduced glutathione as potential protective agent against cisplatin toxicity. (24)
• Impact of antioxidant supplementation on chemotherapeutic efficacy: A systematic review of the evidence from randomized controlled trials. (25)
• Peripheral neurotoxicity following high-dose cisplatin with glutathione: clinical and neurophysiological assessment. (26)
• A critical role of glutathione in determining apoptosis sensitivity and resistance in leukemia cells. (27)
• Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathine protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. (28)
• Blood Iron, Glutathione, and Micronutrient Levels and the Risk of Oral Cancer. (29)
Glutathione Articles - Cardiovascular Disease
• Relationship Between Oxidative Stress and Essential Hypertension. (30)
• Anti-oxidant and anti-atherogenic properties of liposomal glutathione: studies in vitro, and in the atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. (31)
• The relationship between plasma levels of oxidized and reduced thiols and early atherosclerosis in healthy adults. (32)
• Diurnal variation in glutathione and cysteine redox states in human plasma. (33)
Glutathione Links - Diabetes
• Intracellular reduced glutathione content in normal and type 2 diabetic erythrocytes: Effect of insulin and (―)epicatechin. (34)
• Glutathione in human plasma: Decline in association with aging, agerelated macular degeneration, and diabetes. (35)
• Influence of reduced glutathione infusion on glucose metabolism in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. (36)
• Evaluation of some biochemical changes in diabetic patients. (37)
• Glutathione reverses the growth abnormalities of skin fibroblasts from insulin-dependent diabetic patients with nephropathy. (38)
• Glutathione in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes. (39)
• Glucose Toxicity in Beta-Cells: Type 2 Diabetes, Good Radicals Gone Bad, and the Glutathione Connection. (40)
Glutathione Articles - Heavy Metal Toxicity
• Metals, Toxicity and Oxidative Stress. (41)
• The role of transport in chemical nephrotoxicity. (42)
• Oxidative mechanisms in the toxicity of metal ions. (43)
• The distribution of total mercury in the brain after the lateral ventricular single injection of methylmercury and glutathione. (44)
• Chromosome-damaging activity of ferritin and its relation to chelation and reduction of iron. (45)
• Molecular Interactions with Mercury in the Kidney. (46)
• Cellular resistance to methylmercury. (47)
• Glutathione depletion and in vitro lipid peroxidation in mercury or maleate induced acute renal failure. (48)
• Mercury toxicity and antioxidants: Part I: Role of glutathione and alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of mercury toxicity. (49)
Glutathione Articles - HIV
• Glutathione metabolism and its implications for health. (50)
• Disturbed glutathione metabolism and decreased antioxidant levels in human immunodeficiency virus–infected patients during highly active antiretroviral therapy—potential immunomodulatory effects of antioxidants. (51)
• Oxidative metabolism of HIV-infected macrophages: the role of glutathione and a pharmacologic approach. (52)
• Protective effect of glutathione in HIV-1 lytic peptide 1-induced cell death in human neuronal cells. (53)
• Increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity and serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha in HIV-infected patients. (54)
• HIV-1 viral proteins gp120 and Tat induce oxidative stress in brain endothelial cells. (55)
• Protein glutathionylation: Coupling and uncoupling of glutathione to protein thiol groups in lymphocytes under oxidative stress and HIV infection. (56)
• N-acetylcysteine replenishes glutathione in HIV infection. (57)
• Regional differences in emphysema scores and BAL glutathione levels in HIV-infected individuals. (58)
• Quantitation of reduced glutathione and cysteine in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. (59)
• Role of cysteine and glutathione in HIV infection and other diseases associated with muscle wasting and immunological dysfunction. (60)
• The importance of glutathione in human disease. (61)
• Glutathione deficiency is associated with impaired survival in HIV disease. (62)
• Vascular oxidative stress and nitric oxide depletion in HIV-1 transgenic rats are reversed by glutathione restoration. (63)
Glutathione Articles - Huntington’s Disease
• Increased glutathione levels in cortical and striatal mitochondria of the R6/2 Huntington’s disease mouse model. (64)
Glutathione Articles - Parkinson’s Disease
• Reduced intravenous glutathione in the treatment of early Parkinson’s disease. (65)
• Glutathione peroxidase in early and advanced Parkinson’s disease. (66)
• Dopamine turnover and glutathione oxidation: implications for Parkinson’s disease. (67)
• Glutathione in Parkinson’s disease: A link between oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage? (68)
• Alterations in glutathione levels in Parkinson’s disease and other neurodegenerative disorders affecting basal ganglia. (69)
• Mitochondrial impairment as an early event in the process of apoptosis induced by glutathione depletion in neuronal cells: Relevance to Parkinson’s disease. (70)
• Idiopathic Parkinson’s disease, progressive supranuclear palsy and glutathione metabolism in substantia nigra of patients. (71)
• Brain amino acids and glutathione in progressive supranuclear palsy. (72)
• Transition metals, ferrentin, glutathione, and ascorbic acid in pakinsonian brains. (73)
• Alterations in the distribution of glutathione in substantia nigra in Parkinson’s disease. (74)
• Oxidative stress as a cause of nigral cell death in Parkinson’s disease and incidental lewy body disease. (75)
• Parkinson’s Disease: a disorder due to nigral cell glutathione deficiency. (76)
• Glutathione Depletion in PC12 Results in Selective Inhibition of Mitochondrial Complex I Activity. (77)
• Alterations in glutathione levels in Parkinson’s disease and other neurodegenerative disorders affecting basal ganglia. (78)
• Glutathione Depletion Leads to Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease in Mice. (79)
• Altered mitochondrial function, iron metabolism and glutathione levels in Parkinson’s disease. (80)
• Glutathione depletion switches nitric oxide neurotrophic effects to cell death in midbrain cultures: implications for Parkinson’s disease. (81)
• What process causes nigral cell death in Parkinson’s disease? (82)
• Parkinson’s Disease as Multifactorial Oxidative Neurodegeneration: Implications for Integrative Management. (83)
• Inducible Alterations of Glutathione Levels in Adult Dopaminergic Midbrain Neurons Result in Nigrostriatal Degeneration. (84)
• Randomized, double-blind, pilot evaluation of intravenous glutathione in Parkinson’s disease. (85)
Glutathione Articles – Stroke
• Relationship between plasma glutathione Levels and cardiovascular disease in a defined population: The hisayama study. (86)
• Nutritional regulation of glutathione in stroke. (87)
• Antioxidant status in acute stroke patients and patients at stroke risk. (88)
Glutathione Articles - Neurodegenerative Diseases
• Glutathione content as a potential mediator of the vulnerability of cultured fetal cortical neurons to ethanol-induced apoptosis. (89)
• N-Acetyl Cysteine for Depressive Symptoms in Bipolar Disorder-A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial. (90)
• Glutathione deficiency in human disease. (91)
• Regulation of Neuronal Glutathione Synthesis. (92)
Glutathione Articles - Multiple Sclerosis
• Oxidative stress in patients with multiple sclerosis. (93)
• Glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms in MS: Their relationship to disability. (94)
• Nitric oxide synthase is present in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with active multiple sclerosis and is associated with increases in cerebrospinal fluid protein nitrotyrosine and S-nitrosothiols and with changes in glutathione levels. (95)
• Disruption of thiol homeostasis and nitrosative stress in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with active multiple sclerosis: Evidence for a protective role of acetylcarnitine. (96)
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Glutathione and Cancer
• Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy in advanced colorectal cancer: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (1)
• Glutathione in the prevention of cisplatin induced toxicities. A prospectively randomized pilot trial in patients with head and neck cancer and non small lung cancer. (2)
• Glutathione reduces the toxicity and improves quality of life of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer treated with cisplatin: Results of a double-blind, randomized trial. (3)
• Characterization of cisplatin-glutathione adducts by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Evidence for their formation in vitro but not in vivo after concomitant administration of cisplatin and glutathione to rats anc cancer patients. (4)
• Neuroprotective effect of reduced glutathione on cisplatin-based chemotherapy on advanced gastric cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. (5)
• Phase 1 trial of cisplatin in combination with glutathione. (6)
• A phase II study of combination chemotherapy in advanced ovarian carcinoma with cisplatin and cyclophosphamide plus reduced glutathione as potential protective agent against cisplatin toxicity. (7)
• Impact of antioxidant supplementation on chemotherapeutic efficacy: A systematic review of the evidence from randomized controlled trials. (8)
• Peripheral neurotoxicity following high-dose cisplatin with glutathione: clinical and neurophysiological assessment. (9)
• A critical role of glutathione in determining apoptosis sensitivity and resistance in leukemia cells. (10)
• Efficacy and safety of high-dose cisplatin and cyclophosphamide with glutathine protection in the treatment of bulky advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. (11)
• Blood Iron, Glutathione, and Micronutrient Levels and the Risk of Oral Cancer. (12)
• Glutathione in Cancer Cell Death. (13)
• Glutathione Transferases and Cancer (14)
• Glutathione S-Transferases and Glutathione in human head and neck cancer (15)
• Glutathione in Cancer Biology and Therapy (16)
• Glutathione, Sulfur Amino Acids, and Cancer (17)
• Glutathione and Glutathione-Related Enzymes in Colorectal Cancer Patients (18)
• Cancer, a disease of defective glucose metabolism: The energy for mitosis appears to come from a glutathione mediated glycolysis (19)
• Glutathione and glutathione linked enzymes in human small cell lung cancer cell lines (20)
• Glutathione based approaches to improving cancer treatment (21)
• Glutathione plays a role in eliminating many carcinogens and also maintains an optimized immune function, providing stronger anti-tumor defenses. (22)
• One of the most important antioxidants is a substance called glutathione. It is present in every cell in the body, and low levels are associated with higher rates of several types of cancer. Conversely, when glutathione levels are high, cancer rates are low. (23)
• Dietary Glutathione intake is associated with protection against some forms of Cancer. The greater the exposure to toxins, the faster the body uses up its supply of Glutathione. Without the protection of Glutathione, cells die at a faster rate, making people age more quickly and putting them at risk for toxin-induced diseases, including Cancer. (24)
• As we get older glutathione levels decrease and this is one reason why cancer develops with aging. Studies show that 53% of people ages 60-80 have dangerously low levels of glutathione. (25)
• Enhancing Glutathione is the cornerstone of my recommendations for any chronic illness, including MS, ALS, Parkinson’s, Alzheimers, Crohn’s, ulcerative colitis, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, osteoarthritis, and even Cancer. (26)
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15. Carcinogenesis, Vol. 16, p.619-624. ISSN 0143-3334.
16. 2006, Vol. 43, No. 2 , Pages 143-181 (doi:10.1080/10408360500523878) José M. Estrela, Angel Ortega and Elena Obrador Department of Physiology, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Valencia, 17 Av. Blasco Ibañez, Valencia, 46010, Spain
17. Roberta Masella, Giuseppe Mazza, José M. Estrela, Julian Carretero, Angel Ortega
18. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues Volume 66, Issue 5, 2003
19. Medical Hypotheses Volume 10, Issue 2, February 1983, Pages 133–150
20. Cancer Letters Volume 75, Issue 2, 10 December 1993, Pages 111–119
21. Chemico-Biological Interactions Volumes 111–112, 24 April 1998, Pages 225–238
22. Cancer Letters 57: 91-94 1991
23. Russell Blaylock M.D.
24. Michael Murray, N.D. and Joseph Pizzorno, N.D
25. F. Russell Manual, MSC M.D. FACEP
26. William Code, BSc, M.D. FRCPC F.
Glutathione and Fertility Benefits
• GSH results are promising, especially regarding motility improvement after the post-thawing incubation, and should be selected for future fertility trials. (1)
• This report revealed that decreased seminal GSH and trace element deficiencies are implicated in low sperm quality and may be an important indirect biomarker of idiopathic male infertility. Our results sustain that the evaluation of seminal antioxidant status in infertile men is necessary and can be helpful in fertility assessment from early stages. (2)
• Exposing sperm to reduced glutathione may alleviate oxidative stress in frozen/thawed mouse sperm, thereby enhancing in vitro fertilization (IVF) (3)
• Adding reduced glutathione to the fertilization medium increased the fertilization rate. (4)
• In summary, we have established a novel IVF method using methyl-beta-cyclodextrin during sperm preincubation and reduced glutathione during the IVF procedure to enhancefertility of frozen/thawed C57BL/6 mouse sperm. (5)
• A significantly lower percentage of blastocyst stage embryos was recovered from uteri of lowered glutathione females than raised glutathione females. (6)
• Embryonic development to the blastocyst stage, but not the two-cell stage, was significantly decreased after in vitro fertilization of oocytes from decreased glutathione females compared with increased glutathione females. These results demonstrate critical roles for maternal GSH in supporting normal preimplantation development. (7)
• This study indicates that the use of glutathione as semen additive may be used for improving post-thaw semen quality and overall augmentation of pregnancy. (8)
• This paper underlines the importance of the glutathione protein family in determining the fertilizing potential of mammalian spermatozoa. This is particularly relevant in the field of mammalian fertility and infertility as well as in the development of assisted medical procreation technologies and male gamete preservation techniques that are extensively used in human and animal reproduction programs. (9)
• Our results demonstrated for the first time that the short form glutathione protein is present in somatic tissue mitochondria and is essential for survival and protection against apoptosis in mice, whereas the long form glutathione protein is important for male fertility. (10)
• These observations suggest that glutathione is a potent antioxidant scavenger in the luminal compartment of the mouse cauda epididymidis that protects spermatozoa from oxidative injuries that could compromise their integrity and, consequently, embryo viability. (11)
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2. BMC Urol. 2012 Mar 19;12:6.
3. Biol Reprod. 2011 Nov;85(5):1066-72. Epub 2011 Jul 20.
4. Biol Reprod. 2011 Nov;85(5):1066-72. Epub 2011 Jul 20.
5. Biol Reprod. 2011 Nov;85(5):1066-72. Epub 2011 Jul 20.
6. Endocrinology. 2011 Jul;152(7):2806-15. Epub 2011 May 10.
7. Endocrinology. 2011 Jul;152(7):2806-15. Epub 2011 May 10.
8. Reprod Domest Anim. 2011 Aug;46(4):636-41. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2010.01719.x. Epub 2010 Dec 6.
9. J Anim Sci. 2010 Apr;88(4):1321-31. Epub 2009 Dec 30.
10. J Biol Chem. 2009 Nov 6;284(45):30836-44. Epub 2009 Sep 10.
11. J Clin Invest. 2009 Jul;119(7):2074-85. doi: 10.1172/JCI38940. Epub 2009 Jun 22.
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