Organic Broccoli Powder

$18.00$123.00

Broccoli contains sulforaphane, which is found in cruciferous vegetables such as brussel sprouts, cauliflower, bok choy, kale, broccoli, cabbage, collards, kohlrabi, mustard, turnip, radish, and watercress.
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Description

Organic, FreezeDried
In the last decade, researchers uncovered one compound in particular that’s a potent anti-cancer agent. Sulforaphane is most highly concentrated in broccoli, as well as in other cruciferous vegetables, such as Brussels sprouts, cabbage and cauliflower. According to the American Institute of Cancer Research, animal studies to date have shown that sulforaphane can dramatically reduce the number of malignant tumors, reproduction, growth rate and size, as well as delay cancer onset. Some research findings suggest that sulforaphane might exert its anti-cancer effects by activating detoxifying proteins in the body known as ‚ÄòPhase 2 detoxifying enzymes’- [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1997 Sep 16;94(19): 10367-10372]. The role of these special enzymes appears to be scavenging for cancer-causing molecules. Now a new study adds to these positive reports about sulforaphane by proposing that the compound may additionally play a more direct role in cancer prevention by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis [Cancer Res 2000 Mar 1;60(5):1426-1433]. After treating human colon cancer cells with sulforaphane, the researchers found a number of chemical and structural cellular changes that indicated cancer cells were being killed off by the compound. The study authors also go on to explain that broccoli contains a stable sulforaphane precursor (isothiocyanate), which causes broccoli to release its sulforaphane content when the vegetable is chewed or chopped.

Earlier research at Johns Hopkins University found that sulforaphane blocked the formation of mammary tumors in rodents treated with a potent carcinogen [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1994;91:3147-3150]. Results showed that the number of rats that developed tumors was reduced by 60%, the number of tumors they developed dropped by 80%, and tumor size decreased by 75%. Other research by the American Health Foundation showed that sulforaphane inhibited the appearance of premalignant lesions of colon cancer in rats [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2000;41:660]. And, almost a decade ago, scientists had found that sulforaphane boosted the activity of two detoxifying enzymes-quinone reductase and glutathione transferase-in experimental mice [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1992 Mar 15;89(6):2399-2403]. As a result, scientists speculated that sulforaphane may regulate the metabolism of carcinogens, possibly by helping to neutralize harmful molecules and minimizing the oxidative damage that predisposes cells to cancerous growth. Now the latest research adds another piece to the puzzle that explains how sulforaphane goes about subduing cancerous growth and development.

Broccoli contains sulforaphane, a substance that has anti-bacterial and anti-cancer properties. Sulforaphane is found in cruciferous vegetables such as brussel sprouts, cauliflower, bok choy, kale, broccoli, cabbage, collards, kohlrabi, mustard, turnip, radish, and watercress. It is a potent inducer of protective enzymes that provide defense against cancer-causing chemicals. Eating more broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables is associated with a lower risk of bladder cancer. Broccoli contain 20 to 50 times the concentration of sulforaphane that mature broccoli does. Cooking reduces the levels of sulforaphane in broccoli. Human Study Finds Broccoli Boosts Body’s Ability to Eliminate Cancer-Causing Toxins – Researchers from Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and Bloomberg School of Public Health have observed that broccoli can help the body detoxify carcinogens, which may reduce the risk of developing liver cancer. The study used three-day-old broccoli with known levels of sulforaphane glucosinolate and involved 200 subjects. November, 2005 issue of Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention.Compounds in broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables called isothiocyanates appear to target and block mutant p53 genes associated with cancer growth. Gene p53 is known as a tumor suppressor gene and plays a critical role in keeping cells healthy and protecting them from cancer. When this gene is damaged or mutated, it stops offering this protection. These mutations are found in about half of all human cancers. Isothiocyanates are capable of removing the defective p53 gene while leaving healthy versions of the gene alone.

Researchers in Japan looked at how regularly dining on broccoli sprouts affected a common stomach bacterium called Helicobacter pylori. H pylori infection doesn’t always cause symptoms, but it can lead to stomach inflammation (gastritis) and ulcers. It’s also considered a major risk factor for stomach cancer. Studies in animals have shown that sulforaphane from broccoli sprouts can rein in this bacterium, and also reduce inflammation and cell damage that could lead to cancer. But not much research has been done in people.

In the new study, researchers enlisted 48 men and women who had H pylori but had not been treated for it. Over eight weeks, some ate 2.5 ounces of alfalfa sprouts daily, and others ate 2.5 ounces of broccoli sprouts, which contain as much sulforaphane as two to three servings of broccoli.

Researchers monitored the participants’ H pylori levels using breath, blood, and stool tests. Among those eating broccoli sprouts, H pylori levels were significantly lower at the end of the study than at the start. Levels were unchanged for those eating alfalfa sprouts. The researchers also looked at markers of inflammation in the participants’ blood called pepsinogen I and II. These declined during the study for those eating broccoli sprouts, but remained the same for those eating alfalfa sprouts. However, once people stopped eating broccoli sprouts, their levels of H pylori and pepsinogen I and II eventually went back to where they were at the beginning of the study.

References:
1. World Cancer Research Foundation/American Institute for Cancer Research: Food, Nutrition and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective. Washington, DC, 1997.

2. Talalay P and Fahey JW: Phytochemicals from cruciferous plants protect against cancer by modulating carcinogen metabolism. J Nutr 131, S3027-S3033, 2001.

3. Fahey JW, Zalcmann AT, and Talalay P: The chemical diversity and distribution of glucosinolates and isothiocyanates among plants. Phytochemistry 56, 5-51, 2001.

4. Shapiro TA, Fahey JW,Wade KL, Stephenson KK, and Talalay P: Human metabolism and excretion of cancer chemoprotective glucosinolates and isothiocyanates of cruciferous vegetables. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 7, 1091-1100, 1998.

5. Zhang Y, Talalay P, Cho C-G, and Posner GH: A major inducer of anticarcinogenic protective enzymes from broccoli: isolation and elucidation of structure. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89, 2399-2403, 1992.

6. Fahey JW, Zhang Y, and Talalay P: Broccoli sprouts: an exceptionally rich source of inducers of enzymes that protect against chemical carcinogens. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94, 10367-10372, 1997.

7. Shapiro TA, Fahey JW, Wade KL, Stephenson KK, and Talalay P: Chemoprotective glusosinolates and isothiocyanates of broccoli sprouts: metabolism and excretion in humans. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 10, 501-508, 2001.

8. Talalay P: Chemoprotection against cancer by induction of phase 2 enzymes. BioFactors 12, 5-11, 2000.

9. Motohashi K and Yamamoto Y: Nrf2-Keap1 defines a physiologically important stress response mechanism. Trends Mol Med 10, 549-557, 2004.

10. Zhang Y, Kensler TW, Cho C-G, Posner GH, and Talalay P: Anticarcinogenic activities of sulforaphane and structurally related synthetic norbornyl isothiocyanates. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91, 3147-3150, 1994.

11. Dinkova-Kostova AT, Holtzclaw WD, Cole RN, Itoh K, Wakabayashi N, et al.: Direct evidence that sulfhydryl groups of Keap1 are the sensors regulating the induction of phase 2 enzymes that protect against carcinogens and oxidants. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99, 11908-11913, 2002. 12. Dinkova-Kostova AT, Holtzclaw WD, and Kensler TW: The role of Keap1 in cellular protective responses. Chem Res Toxicol 18, 1779-1791, 2005.

13. Zhang Y, Cho C-G, Posner GH, and Talalay P: Spectroscopic quantitation of organic isothiocyanates by cyclocondensationwith vicinal dithiols. Anal Biochem 205, 100-107, 1992.

14. Zhang Y,Wade KL, Prestera T, and Talalay P: Quantitative determination of isothiocyanates, dithiocarbamates, carbon disulfide, and related thiocarbonyl compounds by cyclocondensation with 1,2-benzenedithiol. Anal Biochem 239, 160-167, 1996.

15. Ye L, Dinkova-Kostova AT, Wade KL, Zhang Y, Shapiro TA, et al.: Quantitative determination of dithiocarbamates in human plasma, serum, erythrocytes, and urine: pharmacokinetics of broccoli sprout isothiocyanates in humans. Clin Chim Acta 316, 43-53, 2002; erratum Clin Chim Acta 321, 127-129, 2002.

16. Murashima M, Watanabe S, Zhuo X-G, Uehara M, and Kurashige A: Phase 1 study of biomarkers for metabolism and oxidative stress after one-week intake of broccoli sprouts. BioFactors 22, 271-275, 2004.

17. Kensler TW, Chen J-G, Egner PA, Fahey JW, Jacobson LP, et al.: Effects of glucosinolate-rich broccoli sprouts on urinary levels of aflatoxin- DNA adducts and phenanthrene tetraols in a randomized clinical trial in He Zuo Township, Qidong, PRC. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14, 2605-2613, 2005.

18. Shikita M, Fahey JW, Golden T, HoltzclawWD, and Talalay P: An unusual case of “uncompetitive activation” by ascorbic acid: purification and kinetic properties of a myrosinase from Raphanus sativus seedlings. Biochem J 341, 725-732, 1999.

19. Prestera T, Fahey JW, Holtzclaw WD, Abeygunawardana C, Kachinski JL, et al.: Comprehensive chromatographic and spectroscopic methods for the separation and identification of intact glucosinolates. Anal Biochem 239, 168-179, 1996.

20. Troyer JK, Stephenson KK, and Fahey JW: Analyses of glucosinolates from broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography. J Chromatog A 919, 299-304, 2001

21. Prochaska HJ and Santamaria AB: Direct measurement of NAD(P)H:quinone reductase from cells cultured in microtiter wells: a screening assay for anticarcinogenic enzyme inducers. Anal Biochem 169, 328-336, 1988.

22. Prochaska HJ, Santamaria AB, and Talalay P: Rapid detection of inducers of enzymes that protect against carcinogens. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89, 2394-2398, 1992.

23. Gasper AV, Al-Janobi A, Smith JA, Bacon JR, Fortun P, et al.: Glutathione S-transferase M1 polymorphism and metabolism of sulforaphane from standard and high-glucosinolate broccoli. Am J Clin Nutr 82, 1283-1291, 2005.

24. Getahun SM and Chung F-L: Conversion of glucosinolates to isothiocyanates in humans after ingestion of cooked watercress. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 8, 447-451, 1999.

25. National Cancer Institute: Common Toxicity Criteria Manual, version 2.0, Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program. Bethesda, MD: National Cancer Institute, 1999. email: ncicetphelp@ctep.nci.nih.gov.

 

Unlike many of our competitors, we we have always tested all plant-based products for Heavy Metals and  updated the data in each product description section on this site when needed.

Common Name: Broccoli

Scientific Name: Brassica oleracea var. italica

Part used: flowers

Heavy Metal Test Results:

Arsenic: 0.042 ppm

Cadmium: 0.053 ppm

Lead: 0.555 ppm

Mercury: 0.007 ppm

 

Why Freeze Drying vs. other less expensive drying methods?

Freeze drying, or Lyophilization is the most common processing method for removing moisture from biopharmaceuticals, and it can increase the stability, temperature tolerance, and shelf life of these products. Although Freeze drying is well established within the industry, it requires expensive equipment that takes up a great deal of space within a production facility. Freeze drying also can take days to complete, and manufacturers that need a powdered product must incorporate a granulation step to the process. In an environment where budgets are tightening, and where time and facility space are at a premium, Freeze drying might be a difficult option for some companies.
Freeze drying removes the water, not the flavor. So freeze dried foods retain virtually all their fresh food taste, vitamins and nutritional content. Weighs less than fresh Freeze dried foods have 98% of their water removed. This significantly reduces the food’s weight, making it easier to handle and less costly to transport.

Once freeze dried, food products have the following benefits:
Appearance – Freeze dried foods maintain their original shape and texture, unlike air dried foods which shrink and shrivel due to high temperature processing. Just add water and in minutes the food rehydrates to its original form.
Taste – Tastes as good as fresh. Freeze drying removes the water, not the flavor. So freeze dried foods retain virtually all their fresh food taste, vitamins and nutritional content.
Weight – Weighs less than fresh. Freeze dried foods have 98% of their water removed. This significantly reduces the food’s weight, making it easier to handle and less costly to transport.
Long Shelf Life – Freeze dried foods can be stored for months or years at room temperature without deterioration or spoilage.
Low Storage Costs – Because it can be stored at room temperature, freeze dried food does not require costly cold or chilled storage facilities, making it much cheaper to store.

** Freeze Drying vs. Other Drying Methods:

Freeze Drying Drum Drying Air Drying Spray Drying
100% 65% 45% 30%

Additional information

Weight 1.25 lbs
Dimensions 2 x 2 x 4 in
Size

8 oz, 5 lbs

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