Raw daikon is used throughout Japan to complement the taste of oily or raw foods and, more importantly, to aid in their digestion. Laboratory analysis has shown that the juice of raw daikon is abundant in digestive enzymes similar to those found in the human digestive tract. These enzymes – diastase, amylase, and esterase – help transform complex carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into their readily assimilable components. Traditional Japanese restaurants serve grated daikon (daikon oroshi) in tempura dip to help digest oils, or shredded daikon with raw fish to help digest the protein.
The enzymatic action of daikon juice has gained the attention of scientists in Japan. At Tokyo’s College of Pharmacy, researchers have discovered that daikon juice actually inhibits the formation of dangerous chemicals in the body. Nitrosamines, a type of carcinogen, can form in the stomach from chemicals present in both natural and processed foods. Daikon juice contains substances identified as “phenolic compounds” that can block this potentially dangerous reaction*.
Daikon has also been shown to be effective as a diuretic and decongestant. As a diuretic, raw daikon promotes the discharge of excess water by the kidneys*. The result is increased urination and gradual reduction of the swelling condition known as edema*. As a decongestant, the enzymes in daikon juice seem to help dissolve mucus and phlegm in the respiratory system and facilitate their discharge from the body.
Daikon is high in vitamin C and folate. Like its relatives broccoli, cabbage and kale, daikon is a cruciferous vegetable that offers cancer-protecting potential*.
The radish has many health benefits given its high content of vitamins and minerals. Thus it is rich in vitamin C, B vitamins (mostly folate), minerals like potassium, calcium, molybdenum, copper, magnesium, and dietary fibers. In addition, it has almost no calories and fats. Vitamin C strengthens the bones and the teeth as well as having antioxidant properties and providing increased protection from infections*. Folic acid, which is a B vitamin, may be used in the treatment of kidney* and liver problems*, heart disorders*. Both folic acid and potassium, a mineral found in radish, may diminish the risk of suffering from a stroke*. Potassium may also help with blood pressure diseases*. This vegetable also contains magnesium, which is especially recommended for muscular, heart and kidney conditions*.
Laboratory studies have concluded that other key compounds found in radish are glucosinolates. Glucosinolates are generally found in plants from the Brassicaceae family, including radish. They are derived from an amino acid and glucose and result in mustard oils (isothiocyanates) which are behind the distinctive taste of cabbage, cauliflower and similar vegetables. Mustard oils have anti-inflammatory properties.
According to folk medicine, radishes are generally recommended for digestive disorders* and urinary tract conditions*. Daikon root is used to speed up digestion, and in the treatment of constipation and diarrhea*. Asians also consider it as useful in enhancing the immune system*.
Radishes (Raphanus sativus L.) belong to the family Brassicaceae, and they are cultivated and consumed throughout the world. Radishes are a good source of vitamin C, dietary fiber, minerals, polysaccharides, gibberellins, alkaloids, and nitrogenous compounds, as well as a large variety of phytochemicals, namely glucosinolates (GLs) and phenols (1). The primary glucosinolates in radishes are thio-functionalized GLs, glucoraphasatin (4-methyl thio-3-butenyl GL) and glucoraphenin (4-methyl sulfinyl-3-butenyl GL). Glucoraphasatin is the predominant GL accounting for about 80% of the total GLs while glucoraphenin is the second most common GL and accounts for less than 10% of the total GLs in mature radishes (2). In their original forms, these compounds do not have any direct biological activities, but their derivatives, i.e., isothiocyanates (ITCs), raphasatin (4-methyl thio-3-butenyl ITC) and sulforaphene (4-methyl sulfin-yl-3-butenyl ITC) may have potential health benefits.
Raphasatin is an antioxidant (3,4), a potent inducer of phase II enzymes in precision-cut rat liver slices (5), cytotoxic to multiple cancer cell lines (6–9), and has anti-mutagenic properties (10). Sulforaphene has antimicrobial, antiviral, and antioxidant properties (4,10,11). Sulforaphene is 1.3~1.5-fold more active than sulforaphane with regard to in vitro antimutagenic activities in Salmonella Typhimurium in the presence of Aroclor 1254-induced rat liver S9 (12). Sulforaphene has greater cancer preventive properties (IC50=10.67 μg/mL) against the human colon cancer (HCT116) cell line than the chemotherapeutic drug, mitomycin C (IC50=19.12 μg/mL), via both cytotoxicity and the induction of apoptosis (13).
Radishes are generally utilized as raw vegetables and as components of salads. They may be more beneficial than other cruciferous vegetables, which are consumed after cooking, because heating inactivates myrosinase, which is essential for producing active ITCs from their GL precursors (12). Glucoraphasatin and glucoraphenin in raw radish roots are converted to raphasatin and sulforaphene in water by endogenous myrosinase (thioglucoside glucohydrolase, EC 18.104.22.168) when plant tissues and cells are damaged. The capability of myrosinase in the degradation of GLs could be influenced by a number of processing factors such as reaction temperature, reaction time, solid-liquid ratio, pH, reaction medium, type of mixing, and vitamin C levels (14). The stability of the hydrolyzed products, which are critical for their development as functional agents or as dietary foods, is particularly affected by the reaction medium.
Sulforaphene is slightly soluble in water, and thus it is produced and stabilized during the hydrolysis of radishes in an aqueous medium. However, raphasatin is hydrophobic, highly unstable in an aqueous environment, and spontaneously changes to less active compounds during the hydrolysis of radishes in water (15,16). Therefore, there is a need to optimize a processing method to maximize the formation and minimize the degradation of raphasatin and sulforaphene by the endogenous enzymolysis of radishes. Shen et al. (14) investigated the conversion of glucoraphanin to sulforaphane using an endogenous myrosinase from broccoli seed powder under various enzymolysis conditions such as reaction temperature, reaction time, solid-liquid ratio, pH, and the addition of vitamin C. However, to our knowledge, a systematic study of endogenous enzymatic hydrolysis with radishes under various enzymolysis conditions has not been reported. Previous studies have been performed on the hydrolysis of radishes in water or in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 6.5) for a certain length of time, and the resulting mixture was then centrifuged with the addition of ethanol or dichloromethane to recover the hydrolyzed products (2,5,13,16–18). The formation and degradation of the hydrolyzed products in aqueous media were not considered during the hydrolysis and centrifugation processes. Therefore, the reported yields of ITCs from GLs could be underestimated.
The objective of this study was to optimize the hydrolysis conditions to increase yields and minimize the degradation of raphasatin and sulforaphene from glucoraphasatin and glucoraphenin by an endogenous myrosinase in radish roots during hydrolysis.
1. Gutiérrez RMP, Perez RL. Raphanus sativus (radish): their chemistry and biology. Sci World J. 2004;4:811–837. doi: 10.1100/tsw.2004.131. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
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3. Papi A, Orlandi M, Bartolini G, Barillari J, Iori R, Paolini M, Ferroni F, Grazia Fumo M, Pedulli GF, Valgimigli L. Cytotoxic and antioxidant activity of 4-methylthio-3-butenyl isothiocyanate from Raphanus sativus L. (kaiware daikon) sprouts. J Agric Food Chem.2008;56:875–883. doi: 10.1021/jf073123c. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
4. Yuan G, Wang X, Guo R, Wang Q. Effect of salt stress on phenolic compounds, glucosinolates, myrosinase and antioxidant activity in radish sprouts. Food Chem.2010;121:1014–1019. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.01.040. [Cross Ref]
5. Abdull Razis AF, De Nicola GR, Pagnotta E, Iori R, Ioannides C. 4-Methylsulfanyl-3-butenyl isothiocyanate derived from glucoraphasatin is a potent inducer of rat hepatic phase II enzymes and a potential chemopreventive agent. Arch Toxicol. 2012;86:183–194. doi: 10.1007/s00204-011-0750-x. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
6. Hanlon PR, Webber DM, Barnes DM. Aqueous extract from spanish black radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. niger) induces detoxification enzymes in the HepG2 human hepatoma cell line. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:6439–6446. doi: 10.1021/jf070530f.[PubMed] [Cross Ref]
7. Barillari J, Iori R, Papi A, Orlandi M, Bartolini G, Gabbanini S, Pedulli GF, Valgimigli L. Kaiware Daikon (Raphanus sativus L.) extract: a naturally multipotent chemopreventive agent. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:7823–7830. doi: 10.1021/jf8011213. [PubMed][Cross Ref]
8. Yamasaki M, Omi Y, Fujii N, Ozaki A, Nakama A, Sakakibara Y, Suiko M, Nishiyama K. Mustard oil in “Shibori Daikon” a variety of Japanese radish, selectively inhibits the proliferation of H-ras-transformed 3Y1 cells. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2009;73:2217–2221. doi: 10.1271/bbb.90322. [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 9. Beevi SS, Mangamoori LN, Subathra M, Edula JR. Hexane extract of Raphanus sativus L. roots inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in human cancer cells by modulating genes related to apoptotic pathway. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2010;65:200–209. doi: 10.1007/s11130-010-0178-0. [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 10. Nakamura Y, Iwahashi T, Tanaka A, Koutani J, Matsuo T, Okamoto S, Sato K, Ohtsuki K. 4-(Methylthio)-3-butenyl isothiocyanate, a principal antimutagen in daikon (Raphanus sativus; Japanese white radish) J Agric Food Chem. 2001;49:5755–5760. doi: 10.1021/jf0108415. [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 11. Ippoushi K, Takeuchi A, Ito H, Horie H, Azuma K. Antioxidative effects of daikon sprout (Raphanus sativus L.) and ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) in rats. Food Chem.2007;102:237–242. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.04.046. [Cross Ref]
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15. Montaut S, Barillari J, Iori R, Rollin P. Glucoraphasatin: chemistry, occurrence, and biological properties. Phytochemistry. 2010;71:6–12. doi: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2009.09.021. [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 16. Scholl C, Eshelman BD, Barnes DM, Hanlon PR. Raphasatin is a more potent inducer of the detoxification enzymes than its degradation products. J Food Sci. 2011;76:C504–C511. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02078.x. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
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19. Matera R, Gabbanini S, De Nicola GR, Iori R, Petrillo G, Valgimigli L. Identification and analysis of isothiocyanates and new acylated anthocyanins in the juice of Raphanus sativus cv. Sango sprouts. Food Chem. 2012;133:563–572. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.01.050. [PubMed] [Cross Ref]
Comparison of the Glucosinolate−Myrosinase Systems among Daikon (Raphanus sativus, Japanese White Radish) Varieties
Yasushi Nakamura*†, Kei Nakamura†, Yumi Asai†, Toyoaki Wada‡, Kiwamu Tanaka§, Tomoaki Matsuo§, Shigehisa Okamoto#, Johan Meijer⊥, Yasuki Kitamura∥, Akiyoshi Nishikawa∥, Eun Young Park†, Kenji Sato† and Kozo Ohtsuki†
J. Agric. Food Chem., 2008, 56 (8), pp 2702–2707
Publication Date (Web): March 18, 2008
Myrosinase is a cytosolic plant enzyme present in daikon (Raphanus sativus, Japanese white radish) roots that hydrolyzes 4-methylthio-3-butenyl glucosinolate (MTBGLS) into the natural pungent agent 4-methylthio-3-butenyl isothiocyanate (MTBITC), which possesses antimicrobial, antimutagenic, and anticarcinogenic properties. The concentration of MTBGLS, myrosinase activity, and production of MTBITC in seven daikon varieties (one conventional and six heirlooms) were determined to rank the activity of the glucosinolate−myrosinase system and identify critical factors influencing the production of MTBITC. The six heirloom varieties produced 2.0–11.5 times higher levels of MTBITC as compared to the conventional variety, Aokubi, which is consumed by the present Japanese population. The myrosinase was located exclusively in the outer epidermal layer in Aokubi, and MTBGLS was widely distributed throughout the root tissue. Although the skin is a potentially rich source of myrosinase in Aokubi, the skin is usually peeled off in the current practice of preparing daikon for cooking. New practices are therefore proposed for the preparation of daikon tubers that eliminate the peeling of the skin to avoid removing the enzyme needed to convert MTBGLS to the health-beneficial MTBITC. It is also concluded that the consumption of heirloom daikon varieties in addition to changes in food preparation will optimize the health benefits of daikon.
Unlike many of our competitors, we we have always tested all plant-based products for Heavy Metals and updated the data in each product description section on this site when needed.
Common Name: Daikon Radish
Scientific Name: Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatus
Part used: root
Heavy Metal Test Results:
Arsenic: 0.018 ppm
Cadmium: 0.011 ppm
Lead: 0.175 ppm
Mercury: <0.004 ppm
Why Freeze Drying vs. other less expensive drying methods?
Freeze drying, or Lyophilization is the most common processing method for removing moisture from biopharmaceuticals, and it can increase the stability, temperature tolerance, and shelf life of these products. Although Freeze drying is well established within the industry, it requires expensive equipment that takes up a great deal of space within a production facility. Freeze drying also can take days to complete, and manufacturers that need a powdered product must incorporate a granulation step to the process. In an environment where budgets are tightening, and where time and facility space are at a premium, Freeze drying might be a difficult option for some companies.
Freeze drying removes the water, not the flavor. So freeze dried foods retain virtually all their fresh food taste, vitamins and nutritional content. Weighs less than fresh Freeze dried foods have 98% of their water removed. This significantly reduces the food’s weight, making it easier to handle and less costly to transport.
Once freeze dried, food products have the following benefits:
Appearance – Freeze dried foods maintain their original shape and texture, unlike air dried foods which shrink and shrivel due to high temperature processing. Just add water and in minutes the food rehydrates to its original form.
Taste – Tastes as good as fresh. Freeze drying removes the water, not the flavor. So freeze dried foods retain virtually all their fresh food taste, vitamins and nutritional content.
Weight – Weighs less than fresh. Freeze dried foods have 98% of their water removed. This significantly reduces the food’s weight, making it easier to handle and less costly to transport.
Long Shelf Life – Freeze dried foods can be stored for months or years at room temperature without deterioration or spoilage.
Low Storage Costs – Because it can be stored at room temperature, freeze dried food does not require costly cold or chilled storage facilities, making it much cheaper to store.
Freeze Drying vs. Other Drying Methods: