Nutrition Data of Mulberries
Mulberries are also a reservoir of antioxidants. An antioxidant called Resveratrol is found abundantly in mulberries. Other antioxidants found in mulberries are cyanidin, chlorogenic acid, Myricetin, and Rutin. Apart from these, mulberries are also a rich source of polynutrients like anthocyanin, flavonoids, lutein, zeaxanthin, B carotenes, and A carotene.
There is not much difference between the nutritional profiles of the different types of mulberries. The black mulberries are usually tastier than the white mulberries, but their nutrition profile is pretty much the same.
Mulberry (Sang Shèn Zǐ) and its Bioactive Compounds, the Chemoprevention Effects and Molecular Mechanisms In Vitro and In Vivo
Mulberry fruit has a high yield in one fruiting season in many countries, especially in Asia, and a long history of use as an edible fruit and traditional medicine. A great diversity of nutritive compounds such as fatty acids, amino acids, vitamins, minerals, and bioactive compounds, including anthocyanins, rutin, quercetin, chlorogenic acid, and polysaccharides have been found in mulberry fruit depending on the cultivars and maturity stages. Furthermore, the extracts and active components of mulberry fruit have demonstrated numerous biological activities, including antioxidant, neuroprotective, antiatherosclerosis, immunomodulative, antitumor, antihyperglycemic, and hypolipidemic activities in in vitro and in vivo studies, and they have received increasing interest from researchers and pharmaceutical companies. Although some mechanistic studies further substantiate these potential health benefits of mulberry fruit, a need exists to make a better understanding of the roles of these compounds in traditional medicine and the diet. This review provides recent findings regarding the chemical constituents and biological activities of mulberry fruit, which may be useful for stimulating deep research of mulberry fruit and for predicting their uses as important and safe contributors to benefit human health.
J Agric Food Chem. 2017 Dec 6;65(48):10383-10394. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b03614. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
The Mulberry (Morus alba L.) Fruit-A Review of Characteristic Components and Health Benefits.
- Ercisli S, Orhan E. Chemical composition of white (Morus alba), red (Morus rubra) and black (M. nigra) mulberry fruits. Food Chem. 2007;103:1380–4.
- Arabshahi-Delouee S, Urooj A. Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts of mulberry (Morus indicaL.) leaves. Food Chem. 2007;102:1233–40.
- Darias-Martin J, Lobo-Rodrigo G, Hernandez-Cordero J, Diaz-Diaz E, Diaz-Romero C. Alcoholic beverages obtained from black mulberry. Food Technol Biotechnol. 2003;41:173–6.
- Elmacı Y, Altuğ T. Flavour evaluation of three black mulberry (Morus nigra) cultivars using GC/MS, chemical and sensory data. J Sci Food Agric. 2002;82:632–5.
- Gao X, Ohlander M, Jeppsson N, Björk L, Trajkovski V. Changes in antioxidant effects and their relationship to phytonutrients in fruits of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoidesL.) during maturation. J Agric Food Chem. 2000;48:1485–90. [PubMed]
- Gerasopoulos D, Stavroulakis G. Quality characteristics of four mulberry (Morussp.) cultivars in the area of Chania, Greece. J Sci Food Agric. 1997;73:261–4.
- Lin JY, Tang CY. Determination of total phenolic and flavonoid contents in selected fruits and vegetables, as well as their stimulatory effects on mouse splenocyte proliferation. Food Chem. 2007;101:140–7.
- Sass-Kiss A. Differences in anthocyanin and carotenoid content of fruits and vegetables. Food Res Int. 2005;38:1023–9.
- Zadernowski R, Naczk M, Nesterowicz J. Phenolic acid profiles in some small berries. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:2118–24. [PubMed]
- Krishnaswamy K, Raghuramulu N. Bioactive phytochemicals with emphasis on dietary practices. Indian J Med Res. 1998;108:167–81. [PubMed]
- Andallu B, Suryakantham V, Lakshmi Srikanthi B, Reddy GK. Effect of mulberry (Morus indicaL.) therapy on plasma and erythrocyte membrane lipids in patients with type 2 diabetes. Clin Chim Acta. 2001;314:47–53. [PubMed]
- Huang HP, Shih YW, Chang YC, Hung CN, Wang CJ. Chemoinhibitory effect of mulberry anthocyanins on melanoma metastasis involved in the Ras/PI3K pathway. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:9286–93. [PubMed]
- El-Beshbishy HA, Singab AN, Sinkkonen J, Pihlaja K. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of Morus albaL. (Egyptian mulberry) root bark fractions supplementation in cholesterol-fed rats. Life Sci. 2006;78:2724–33. [PubMed]
- Kimura T, Nakagawa K, Kubota H, Kojima Y, Goto Y, Yamagishi K, et al. Food-grade mulberry powder enriched with 1-deoxynojirimycin suppresses the elevation of postprandial blood glucose in humans. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:5869–74. [PubMed]
- Isabelle M, Lee BL, Ong CN, Liu X, Huang D. Peroxyl radical scavenging capacity, polyphenolics, and lipophilic antioxidant profiles of mulberry fruits cultivated in southern China. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:9410–6. [PubMed]
- Wang CJ, Wang JM, Lin WL, Chu CY, Chou FP, Tseng TH. Protective effect of Hibiscus anthocyaninsagainst tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced hepatic toxicity in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2000;38:411–6.[PubMed]
- Imran M, Khan H, Shah M, Khan R, Khan F. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of certain Morusspecies. J Zhejiang Univ Sci B. 2010;11:973–80. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
- Robbins RJ. Phenolic acids in foods: an overview of analytical methodology. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51:2866–87. [PubMed]
- Mahmood T, Anwar F, Abbas M, Saari N. Effect of maturity on phenolics (phenolic acids and flavonoids) profile of strawberry cultivars and mulberry species from pakistan. Int J Mol Sci. 2012;13:4591–607. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
- Ou TT, Hsu MJ, Chan KC, Huang CN, Ho HH, Wang CJ. Mulberry extract inhibits oleic acid-induced lipid accumulation via reduction of lipogenesis and promotion of hepatic lipid clearance. J Sci Food Agric. 2011;91:2740–8. [PubMed]
- Pawlowska AM, Oleszek W, Braca A. Quali-quantitative analyses of Flavonoids of Morus nigraL. and Morus alba L. (Moraceae) fruits. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:3377–80. [PubMed]
- Liu LK, Lee HJ, Shih YW, Chyau CC, Wang CJ. Mulberry anthocyanin extracts inhibit LDL oxidation and macrophage-derived foam cell formation induced by oxidative LDL. J Food Sci. 2008;73:H113–21.[PubMed]
- Hassimotto NM, Genovese MI, Lajolo FM. Absorption and metabolism of cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside extracted from wild mulberry (Morus nigraL.) in rats. Nutr Res. 2008;28:198–207.[PubMed]
- Lodovici M, Guglielmi F, Meoni M, Dolara P. Effect of natural phenolic acids on DNA oxidation in vitro. Food Chem Toxicol. 2001;39:1205–10. [PubMed]
- Harborne JB, Williams CA. Advances in flavonoid research since 1992. Phytochemistry. 2000;55:481–504. [PubMed]
- Lu Xi WL, Wei H, Yang Z, Wei W. Structure-activity relationship of flavonoids in antioxidant activity. Food Sci. 2006;27:233–7.
- Fang SH, Hou YC, Chao PD. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions of morin and cyclosporin. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2005;205:65–70. [PubMed]
- Kang TH, Hur JY, Kim HB, Ryu JH, Kim SY. Neuroprotective effects of the cyanidin-3-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside isolated from mulberry fruit against cerebral ischemia. Neurosci Lett. 2006;391:122–6.[PubMed]
- Hassimotto NM, Genovese MI, Lajolo FM. Antioxidant activity of dietary fruits, vegetables, and commercial frozen fruit pulps. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:2928–35. [PubMed]
- Kim H, Yoon YJ, Shon JH, Cha IJ, Shin JG, Liu KH. Inhibitory effects of fruit juices on CYP3A activity. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006;34:521–3. [PubMed]
- Arfan M, Khan R, Rybarczyk A, Amarowicz R. Antioxidant activity of mulberry fruit extracts. Int J Mol Sci. 2012;13:2472–80. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
- Shih PH, Chan YC, Liao JW, Wang MF, Yen GC. Antioxidant and cognitive promotion effects of anthocyanin-rich mulberry (Morus atropurpureaL.) on senescence-accelerated mice and prevention of Alzheimer’s disease. J Nutr Biochem. 2010;21:598–605. [PubMed]
- Du Q, Zheng J, Xu Y. Composition of anthocyanins in mulberry and their antioxidant activity. J Food Compos Anal. 2008;21:390–5.
- Chen CC, Hsu JD, Huang HP, Yang MY, Wang CJ. Mulberry extract inhibits the development of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Food Chem. 2005;91:601–7.
- Yang X, Yang L, Zheng H. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of mulberry (Morus albaL.) fruit in hyperlipidaemia rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010;48:2374–9. [PubMed]
- Sakagami H, Asano K, Satoh K, Takahashi K, Terakubo S, Shoji Y, et al. Anti-stress activity of mulberry juice in mice. In Vivo. 2006;20:499–504. [PubMed]
- Kim AJ, Park S. Mulberry extract supplements ameliorate the inflammation-related hematological parameters in carrageenan-induced arthritic rats. J Med Food. 2006;9:431–5. [PubMed]
- Yang XY, Park GS, Lee MH, Chang IA, Kim YC, Kim SY, et al. Toll-like receptor 4-mediated immunoregulation by the aqueous extract of Mori Fructus. Phytother Res. 2009;23:1713–20. [PubMed]
- Yang CS, Landau JM, Huang MT, Newmark HL. Inhibition of carcinogenesis by dietary polyphenolic compounds. Annu Rev Nutr. 2001;21:381–406. [PubMed]
- Cui X, Jin Y, Hofseth AB, Pena E, Habiger J, Chumanevich A, et al. Resveratrol suppresses colitis and colon cancer associated with colitis. Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2010;3:549–59. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
- Singh UP, Singh NP, Singh B, Hofseth LJ, Price RL, Nagarkatti M, et al. Resveratrol (trans-3,5,4’-trihydroxystilbene) induces silent mating type information regulation-1 and down-regulates nuclear transcription factor-kappaB activation to abrogate dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010;332:829–39. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
- Manson MM. Cancer prevention – the potential for diet to modulate molecular signalling. Trends Mol Med. 2003;9:11–8. [PubMed]
- Surh YJ. Cancer chemoprevention with dietary phytochemicals. Nat Rev Cancer. 2003;3:768–80.[PubMed]
- Sardari S, Shokrgozar MA, Ghavami G. Cheminformatics based selection and cytotoxic effects of herbal extracts. Toxicol In Vitro. 2009;23:1412–21. [PubMed]
- Chen PN, Chu SC, Chiou HL, Kuo WH, Chiang CL, Hsieh YS. Mulberry anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-rutinoside and cyanidin 3-glucoside, exhibited an inhibitory effect on the migration and invasion of a human lung cancer cell line. Cancer Lett. 2006;235:248–59. [PubMed]
- Jeong JC, Jang SW, Kim TH, Kwon CH, Kim YK. Mulberry fruit (Moris fructus) extracts induce human glioma cell death in vitro through ROS-dependent mitochondrial pathway and inhibits glioma tumor growth in vivo. Nutr Cancer. 2010;62:402–12. [PubMed]
- Huang HP, Chang YC, Wu CH, Hung CN, Wang CJ. Anthocyanin-rich Mulberry extract inhibit the gastric cancer cell growth in vitroFood Chemistry and xenograft mice by inducing signals of p38/p53 and c-jun. Food Chem. 2011;129:1703–9.
- Ghavami G, Sardari S, Ali Shokrgozar M. Cheminformatics-based selection and synergism of herbal extracts with anticancer agents on drug resistance tumor cells-ACHN and A2780/cp cell lines. Comput Biol Med. 2011;41:665–74. [PubMed]
- El-Serag HB, Rudolph KL. Hepatocellular carcinoma: Epidemiology and molecular carcinogenesis. Gastroenterology. 2007;132:2557–76. [PubMed]
- Kwon HJ, Kim YY, Choung SY. Amelioration effects of traditional Chinese medicine on alcohol-induced fatty liver. World J Gastroenterol. 2005;11:5512–6. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
- Hsu LS, Ho HH, Lin MC, Chyau CC, Peng JS, Wang CJ. Mulberry water extracts (MWEs) ameliorated carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damages in rat. Food Chem Toxicol. 2012;50:3086–93. [PubMed]
- Ou TT, Kuo CY, Chyau CC, Lee HJ, Peng JS, Wang CJ. Improvement of lipopolysaccharides-induced hepatic injuries and inflammation with mulberry extracts. J Sci Food Agric. 2012 doi: 10.1002/jsfa.5984.[PubMed]
- Naderi GA, Asgary S, Sarraf-Zadegan N, Oroojy H, Afshin-Nia F. Antioxidant activity of three extracts of Morus nigra. Phytother Res. 2004;18:365–9. [PubMed]
- Guengerich FP. In vitrotechniques for studying drug metabolism. J Pharmacokinet Biopharm. 1996;24:521–33. [PubMed]
- Hidaka M, Okumura M, Fujita K, Ogikubo T, Yamasaki K, Iwakiri T, et al. Effects of pomegranate juice on human cytochrome p450 3A (CYP3A) and carbamazepine pharmacokinetics in rats. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005;33:644–8. [PubMed]
- Satoh H, Yamashita F, Tsujimoto M, Murakami H, Koyabu N, Ohtani H, et al. Citrus juices inhibit the function of human organic anion-transporting polypeptide OATP-B. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005;33:518–23.[PubMed]
- Despres JP. Is visceral obesity the cause of the metabolic syndrome? Ann Med. 2006;38:52–63.[PubMed]
- Peng CH, Liu LK, Chuang CM, Chyau CC, Huang CN, Wang CJ. Mulberry water extracts possess an anti-obesity effect and ability to inhibit hepatic lipogenesis and promote lipolysis. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:2663–71. [PubMed]
- Lazzè MC, Savio M, Pizzala R, Cazzalini O, Perucca P, Scovassi AI, et al. Anthocyanins induce cell cycle perturbations and apoptosis in different human cell lines. Carcinogenesis. 2004;25:1427–33.[PubMed]
- Meyer C, Blissett J, Oldfield C. Sexual orientation and eating psychopathology: the role of masculinity and femininity. Int J Eat Disord. 2001;29:314–8. [PubMed]
- Tsuda T, Majumder K, Linask KK. Differential expression of flectin in the extracellular matrix and left-right asymmetry in mouse embryonic heart during looping stages. Dev Genet. 1998;23:203–14. [PubMed]
- Du Q, Zheng J, Xu Y. Composition of anthocyanins in mulberry and their antioxidant activity. J Food Compos Anal. 2008;21:390–5.
- Chen CC, Liu LK, Hsu JD, Huang HP, Yang MY, Wang CJ. Mulberry extract inhibits the development of atherosclerosis in holesterol-fed rabbits. Food Chem. 2005;91:601–7.
- Ha US, Koh JS, Kim HS, Woo JC, Kim SJ, Jang H, et al. Cyanidin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside concentrated materials from mulberry fruit have a potency to protect erectile function by minimizing oxidative stress in a rat model of diabetic erectile dysfunction. Urol Int. 2012;88:470–6. [PubMed]
- Kahkonen MP, Heinonen M. Antioxidant activity of anthocyanins and their aglycons. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51:628–33. [PubMed]
- Serraino I, Dugo L, Dugo P, Mondello L, Mazzon E, Dugo G, et al. Protective effects of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside from blackberry extract against peroxynitrite-induced endothelial dysfunction and vascular failure. Life Sci. 2003;73:1097–114. [PubMed]
- Seeram NP, Momin RA, Nair MG, Bourquin LD. Cyclooxygenase inhibitory and antioxidant cyanidin glycosides in cherries and berries. Phytomedicine. 2001;8:362–9. [PubMed]
- Bhuiyan MI, Kim HB, Kim SY, Cho KO. The neuroprotective potential of cyanidin-3-glucoside fraction extracted from mulberry following oxygen-glucose deprivation. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol. 2011;15:353–61. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
- Kaewkaen P, Tong-Un T, Wattanathorn J, Muchimapura S, Kaewrueng W, Wongcharoenwanakit S. Effects of mulberry fruit powder in animal model of stroke. Am J Agric Biol Sci. 2012;7:322–9.
- Kim HG, Ju MS, Shim JS, Kim MC, Lee SH, Huh Y, et al. Mulberry fruit protects dopaminergic neurons in toxin-induced Parkinson’s disease models. Br J Nutr. 2010;104:8–16. [PubMed]
Why Freeze Drying vs. other less expensive drying methods?
Freeze drying, or Lyophilization is the most common processing method for removing moisture from biopharmaceuticals, and it can increase the stability, temperature tolerance, and shelf life of these products. Although Freeze drying is well established within the industry, it requires expensive equipment that takes up a great deal of space within a production facility. Freeze drying also can take days to complete, and manufacturers that need a powdered product must incorporate a granulation step to the process. In an environment where budgets are tightening, and where time and facility space are at a premium, Freeze drying might be a difficult option for some companies.
Freeze drying removes the water, not the flavor. So freeze dried foods retain virtually all their fresh food taste, vitamins and nutritional content. Weighs less than fresh Freeze dried foods have 98% of their water removed. This significantly reduces the food’s weight, making it easier to handle and less costly to transport.
Once freeze dried, food products have the following benefits:
Appearance – Freeze dried foods maintain their original shape and texture, unlike air dried foods which shrink and shrivel due to high temperature processing. Just add water and in minutes the food rehydrates to its original form.
Taste – Tastes as good as fresh. Freeze drying removes the water, not the flavor. So freeze dried foods retain virtually all their fresh food taste, vitamins and nutritional content.
Weight – Weighs less than fresh. Freeze dried foods have 98% of their water removed. This significantly reduces the food’s weight, making it easier to handle and less costly to transport.
Long Shelf Life – Freeze dried foods can be stored for months or years at room temperature without deterioration or spoilage.
Low Storage Costs – Because it can be stored at room temperature, freeze dried food does not require costly cold or chilled storage facilities, making it much cheaper to store.
Freeze Drying vs. Other Drying Methods:
|Freeze Drying||Drum Drying||Air Drying||Spray Drying|
*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.